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Power amplifier control unit



Section RF power amplifiers. On amateur KB radio stations, CW and SSB signal power amplifiers are widely used, assembled according to a grounded grid circuit on triodes, as well as tetrodes or pentodes in a triode connection. One of the possible options for the control unit of such an amplifier is shown in the figure. The amplifier is assembled on a VL1 lamp (high-frequency circuits are not shown for simplicity, L1 is an anode choke, L2 is a cathode choke). When working as a telegraph, the triode operates in class B (zero bias voltage on the grid and almost zero quiescent current), and when the SSB signal is amplified, a certain voltage is applied to the lamp cathode, slightly opening the lamp. The quiescent current in this case is set by a tuning resistor R2. The amplifier operating mode is selected by the SAI switch ... >>

Display



Section Beginner radio amateur. During experiments, testing and adjustment of structures on digital microcircuits, it is often necessary to know how certain units and elements of the device work or interact in time. For example, it may be necessary to check how the BCD code is formed at the output of one or two pulse counters at the same time. In such cases, it is useful to have a kind of display - a simple device for visually displaying information about the logical state of an element, trigger, counter or other digital device. A diagram of such a display is shown in Fig. 1 ... >>

Music phrase generator on integrated timers



Section Telephony. The 555 Universal Integrated Timer has another use in a cheap music synthesizer that plays back musical phrases from simple songs. This uses two timers: one generates the rhythm, and the other generates tones. The circuit shown in the figure acts as a phone buzzer, it plays the first 10 notes of the song Beautiful Girl, like a melody. When the control input of timer 1 is connected to the supply voltage Vcc, the melody is repeated continuously ... >>

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Halogen lamps

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electrician's tool

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Fluorescent lamps

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Lighting. Control schemes

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Latest news of science and technology, new electronics:

The speech of sperm whales is similar to that of humans 18.05.2024

In the world of the ocean, where the mysterious and unknown coexists with the studied, sperm whales, with their huge brains, are of particular interest to science. Researchers, working with a huge array of audio recordings collected during the Dominica Sperm Whale Project (DSWP) - more than 8000 recordings, seek to unravel the secrets of their communication and understand the structure and complexity of the language of these mysterious creatures. By studying in detail the recordings of 60 sperm whales in the eastern Caribbean, scientists have revealed surprising features of their communication, revealing the complexity of their language. "Our observations indicate that these whales have a highly developed combinatorial communication system, including rubato and ornaments, which indicates their ability to quickly adapt and vary during communication. Despite significant differences in evolution, sperm whales have elements in their communication that are characteristic of human communication," says Shane Gero, a biologist at Carleton University and director of the CETI project. Issl ... >>

Electron spin for quantum information transfer 18.05.2024

The transfer of quantum information remains one of the key tasks of modern science. Recent advances in the use of electron spin to expand the capabilities of information transfer in quantum systems have become very important. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are pushing the frontiers of quantum information science by experimenting with the possibilities of electron spin. Electron spin, a natural quantum bit, is a potentially powerful means for storing and transmitting information in quantum systems. Magnon wave packets, collective excitations of electron spin, have revealed their potential to transmit quantum information over significant distances. The work of Berkeley Lab researchers has revolutionized the way such excitations propagate in antiferromagnets, opening up new prospects for quantum technologies. Using pairs of laser pulses, scientists disrupted antiferromagnetic order in one place and simultaneously studied it in another, creating ... >>

Sound-absorbing silk 17.05.2024

In a world where noise is becoming increasingly intrusive, the emergence of innovative materials that can reduce its impact is of great interest. MIT researchers have unveiled a new sound-absorbing silk fabric that promises to revolutionize quiet spaces. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made significant breakthroughs in the field of sound absorption. Researchers have developed a special silk fabric that can effectively absorb sound and create cozy, quiet environments. The fabric, thinner than a human hair, contains a unique vibrating fiber that is activated when voltage is applied to it. This feature allows the fabric to be used to suppress sound waves in two different ways. The first method uses fabric vibrations to generate sound waves that cover and cancel out unwanted noise, similar to noise-canceling headphones. This p ... >>

Random news from the Archive

Extremely intermittent radio pulsar discovered 04.07.2023

An international team of astronomers using the MeerKAT telescope has discovered a new pulsar. The newly discovered object, designated PSR J1710-3452, is an extremely periodic radio pulsar.

Pulsars are neutron stars with high magnetic polarity that emit beams of electromagnetic radiation. They usually manifest themselves as short radio pulses, but some of them can be detected using optical, X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes.

Scientists led by Mayuresh Surnis of the Indian Institute for Science Education and Research Bhopal (IISER Bhopal) in India have observed a millisecond pulsar known as PSR J1708-3506 using the MeerKAT telescope as part of the MeerTIME program. In the course of these observations, they accidentally discovered a new pulsar due to its individual impulses.

The object was discovered due to the detection of 97 bright radio pulses in only one of the 66 observed epochs, spanning approximately three years. The bright pulses made it possible to accurately localize the source using a radio image with an accuracy of 0,5 inches.

According to the study, PSR J1710-3452 has a relatively long rotation period of about 10,4 seconds, and its dispersion index is 189 pc/cm3. The intensity of the magnetic field on its surface is estimated at 25 quadrillion Gauss.

Individual pulses of PSR J1710-3452 were found to exhibit similar overall emission, but with greater structure diversity on shorter timescales than previously observed. In addition, each individual pulse consists of two main radiation components separated by approximately 0,7 seconds, for a total pulse width greater than one second. This corresponds to a pulse modulation of approximately 10%.

Astronomers note that such a large lobe-forming cycle is often observed in radio-bright magnetars. Magnetars, in general, are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields, exceeding the magnetic field of our planet by several quadrillion times. In addition, the researchers suggest that the very intermittent nature of PSR J1710-3452 and its position in the Milky Way galaxy indicate that it may be part of an older population of magnetars.

If this is indeed a magnetar, then its location at a relatively high galactic latitude (2,9°) makes it potentially one of the oldest and most intermittent magnetars known in the galaxy. The very short active window of this object is unique and may indicate the presence of an as yet undiscovered population of long-period neutron stars emitting high-brightness radio emission.

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