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Signal limiters, compressors. Schemes, articles, descriptions

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Signal limiters, compressors

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Interior lighting with ultra-bright LEDs

Section Car. Electronic devices. The reliability of the Volga GAZ-3110 car interior illuminator on a fluorescent lamp leaves much to be desired. In my car, the interior light failed in the second year of operation. Attempts to independently assemble a more reliable converter, similar to that described in the article by V. Kharyakov Power supply for a fluorescent lighting lamp (Radio, 2006, No. 7, pp. 47, 48), brought only temporary success. The fluorescent lamp, normally working in the summer, stopped turning on with the onset of cold weather. For its reliable start, nevertheless, apparently, the incandescence of the electrodes is necessary. The appearance on sale of super-bright LEDs prompted the idea to replace them with a lamp in a car interior lamp ... >>

Communication cable integrity monitoring device

Section Indicators, detectors, metal detectors. Cable communication lines have their own characteristics. These are a large length of the main line (up to several tens of kilometers), a large number of wires in the cable, the presence of signals with an amplitude of up to several tens of volts in the wires adjacent to the tested one, and seasonal changes in the physical parameters of the communication line. A burglar alarm for a cable is usually performed according to the principle of monitoring the integrity of a loop - a pair of wires, at the end of which a resistor of a certain resistance is connected. When the wires are broken or shorted, the input resistance of the loop changes significantly, which is fixed by the signaling device ... >>

Fundamentals of the theory of frequency synthesizers

Section Frequency synthesizers. The phase-locked loop (PLL) is a widely used original node, which is produced by some companies as a separate IC. The PLL contains a phase detector, an amplifier and a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and is a combination of analog and digital technology. We will briefly look at the applications of PLLs for tone decoding, AM and FM demodulation, frequency multiplication, frequency synthesis, signal clocking under noisy conditions (such as magnetic recording), and signal recovery. ... >>

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Articles on signal limiters

Articles on signal limiters, compressors; circuits of signal limiters, compressors; descriptions of signal limiters, compressors: 3 articles



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Latest news of science and technology, new electronics:

Sound-absorbing silk 17.05.2024

In a world where noise is becoming increasingly intrusive, the emergence of innovative materials that can reduce its impact is of great interest. MIT researchers have unveiled a new sound-absorbing silk fabric that promises to revolutionize quiet spaces. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made significant breakthroughs in the field of sound absorption. Researchers have developed a special silk fabric that can effectively absorb sound and create cozy, quiet environments. The fabric, thinner than a human hair, contains a unique vibrating fiber that is activated when voltage is applied to it. This feature allows the fabric to be used to suppress sound waves in two different ways. The first method uses fabric vibrations to generate sound waves that cover and cancel out unwanted noise, similar to noise-canceling headphones. This p ... >>

High Energy Density Capacitor 17.05.2024

Energy plays a key role in many aspects of modern life, and the ever-increasing demand for efficient and fast-charging power sources is driving innovation. Researchers at the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis have taken a significant step forward with a high-energy-density capacitor that promises to revolutionize the world of energy. A team of scientists from the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis presented the results of their latest research on heterogeneous thin-film structures for capacitors. Researchers, working with ferroelectrics, inadvertently created a capacitor with an amazing energy density that is 19 times higher than that of conventional elements. This breakthrough opens up new prospects for the development of fast-charging batteries, which are so necessary in the modern world. Capacitors play a key role in various devices, providing stable ... >>

Causes of conflicts between brothers and sisters 16.05.2024

Family relationships are often complex and multi-layered, and conflicts between siblings are no exception. Research in this area can help us understand what factors underlie these conflicts and why they occur so frequently. Let's look at some of the findings from psychologists at Arizona State University. American psychologists from Arizona State University conducted a study aimed at identifying the causes of conflicts between brothers and sisters. They found that different forms of violence, whether physical or verbal, did not depend on the gender of the siblings. This means that both girls and boys can exhibit aggressive behavior towards their loved ones. Other studies have shown that conflict between siblings often persists into adulthood, even as contact decreases. This indicates that people often follow established patterns of behavior formed in childhood. It was also found that, despite ... >>

Random news from the Archive

Exoplanet magnetic field estimated for the first time 02.12.2014

In the two decades since the discovery of the first planet outside the solar system, astronomers have found more than 350 exoplanets and taken a big step in their study. Twenty years ago, the big event was simply the discovery of a new exoplanet, and now astrophysicists are studying the structure and chemical composition of their atmospheres, climate and other characteristics. And in some cases, their moons can even be observed.

One of the important characteristics of the planets is their magnetic field. It affects the behavior of the planet's atmosphere, since it protects it from the destructive effects of the stellar wind and interacts with its ionized part - the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, it can affect the evolution of the planet itself.

Direct observations of the magnetic field of exoplanets are currently not possible. So far, attempts to detect their radio emission, which would also make it possible to estimate the magnetic field, have also been unsuccessful. However, when studying the planet HD 209458b, informally named Osiris, a cloud of hot atomic hydrogen was discovered outside its magnetosphere, "evaporating" from the planet's atmosphere under the influence of a star.

The size and shape of the hydrogen shell is determined by the interaction between the outflow of gas from the planet and the incoming stellar wind of protons, which, as it were, blow off this cloud. Knowing the parameters of the hydrogen cloud, using a certain model, one can estimate the parameters of the magnetosphere and, as a consequence, the parameters of the magnetic field.

The method of such an assessment was proposed by an international team of scientists, which includes Russian physicists, currently representing the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Kristina Kislyakova (formerly an employee of the Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky) and Maxim Khodachenko (also an employee of the SINP named after D.V. Skobeltsyn, Moscow State University). With its help, they were able to estimate the magnitude of the magnetic moment of the planet HD 209458b. The research results are published in the journal Science.

Scientists simulated the formation of a cloud of hot hydrogen around the planet and showed that the observed configuration of the cloud corresponds to only one specific value of the magnetic moment and stellar wind parameters.
To make the model more accurate, astrophysicists took into account a large number of factors that determine the interaction between the stellar wind and the planet's atmosphere: the so-called recharging between the stellar wind and neutral atmospheric particles and their ionization, gravitational effects, pressure, radiative acceleration, spectral line broadening.

The planet HD 209458b, discovered in 1999 150 light-years from Earth, is among several of the most studied and intensively studied exoplanets, as it is one of the few known objects that can be seen as they pass across the star's disk. At the same time, the light of a star comes to Earth, having passed through the atmosphere of the planet, which makes it possible to study its structure and chemical composition by spectral methods. For observations, scientists used the Hubble Space Telescope.

Simulations have shown that the planet's magnetosphere is relatively small, about 2,9 planetary radii, which corresponds to a magnetic moment of only 10% of Jupiter's. This is consistent with preliminary estimates of the effectiveness of the planetary dynamo for this planet.

Such a small magnetic field is due to the fact that the exoplanet HD 209458b is a typical hot Jupiter, that is, a gas giant with a mass of the order of Jupiter, but located much closer to the star. Thus, the exoplanet under consideration is located at a distance of less than 5 million km from the star, which is 100 times closer than Jupiter in the solar system, and even 10 times closer than the closest planet to the Sun, Mercury. Its orbital period is only 3,5 days, its mass is 0,7 Jupiter masses, and its radius is 1,4 Jupiter masses.

Since the orbit of such a planet is very close to the star, it experiences a strong gravitational attraction that slows down the rotation of the planet. Since, according to the planetary dynamo theory, the generation of a magnetic field is associated with the rotation of the cores of the planets, the slow rotation of the planet leads to weak magnetic fields.

Scientists believe that the method they proposed for estimating the magnetic field can be used for all planets, including those similar to the Earth, if there is a high-energy hydrogen shell around them. It is worth noting that about 15% of exoplanets are hot Jupiters.

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