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Rules for the installation of electrical installations (PUE). Schemes, articles, descriptions

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Rules for the installation of electrical installations (PUE)

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Digital tachometer



Section Car. Speedometers and tachometers. The tachometer is designed to measure the crankshaft speed of a four-cylinder automobile gasoline engine. The device can be used both for adjustment work at idle, and for operational control of the engine shaft speed during movement. The measurement cycle is 1 s, and the indication time is also 1 s, i.e. during the indication time, the next measurement takes place, the indicator readings change once per second. The maximum measurement error is 30 min~1, the number of indicator digits is 3, switching of measurement limits is not provided. The tachometer has a quartz stabilization of the clock generator, so the measurement error does not depend on the ambient temperature and changes in the supply voltage ... >>

Metal detector based on the principle of an electronic frequency meter, theory



Section Metal detectors. The development of measuring electronics, and especially with built-in microprocessors, now allows you to take a different look at metal detectors, the principle of operation of which is based on measuring the frequency deviation of the measuring oscillatory circuit. Modern technical means make it possible to implement a compact device that allows real-time estimation of small frequency deviations of the measuring generator with high accuracy. And although an electronic metal detector built according to this principle is an undoubted relative of a beating device, it deserves to be separated into a separate class of devices that can be called metal detectors based on the principle of an electronic frequency meter. Devices of this class, in addition to the mass of service capabilities of microprocessor implementation, have one more fundamental difference from the simplest beat devices - the ability to estimate the sign of the frequency increment ... >>

Electroacupuncture stimulator for professionals



Section Electronics in medicine. The proposed stimulator (EAS) generates short pulses with an amplitude of up to 70V. For the calming mode, continuous pulses are applied (switch position 4), and for the excitation mode, 3 more types of pulses are used. In position 1, there are pulses with a period of 2 s. and a duty cycle of 4. In position 2,3, the output pulses with a period of 2 s., 3s. respectively (meander). The circuit in Fig. 1 consists of two generators assembled on a D1 chip, a driver on D2, D3 chips. Mixer on transistor assembly 166NT1. The voltage converter is assembled on transistors T1, T2, a transformer on a ferrite ring and a rectifier on diodes VD6-VD9, filter C7, R7. The output uses a diode bridge VD1-VD4 and smoothing capacitors C4, C5 for the normal operation of the measuring device ... >>

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Rules for the installation of electrical installations (PUE)

All articles of the Electrical Installation Rules (PUE): 356 articles

Section 1 General Rules

Chapter 1.1. a common part

Chapter 1.2. Power supply and electrical networks

Chapter 1.3. Selection of conductors for heating, economic current density and corona conditions

Chapter 1.4. Selection of electrical apparatus and conductors according to short circuit conditions

Chapter 1.5. Electricity metering

Chapter 1.6. Measurements of electrical quantities

Chapter 1.7. Grounding and Electrical Safety Measures

Chapter 1.8. Acceptance test standards

Chapter 1.9. Insulation of electrical installations

Section 2. Sewerage of electricity

Chapter 2.1. Wiring

Chapter 2.2. Current conductors up to 35 kV

Chapter 2.3. Cable lines up to 220 kV

Chapter 2.4. Overhead power lines with voltage up to 1 kV

Chapter 2.5. Overhead power lines with voltage above 1 kV

Section 3. Protection and automation

Chapter 3.1. Protection of electrical networks with voltage up to 1 kV

Chapter 3.2. Relay protection

Chapter 3.3. Automation and telemechanics

Chapter 3.4. Secondary circuits

Section 4. Switchgears and substations

Chapter 4.1. Switchgears up to 1 kV AC and up to 1,5 kV DC

Chapter 4.2. Switchgears and substations with voltages above 1 kV

Chapter 4.3. Converter substations and installations

Chapter 4.4. Battery installations

Section 5. Electric power plants

Chapter 5.1. Electrical machine rooms

Chapter 5.2. Generators and synchronous compensators

Chapter 5.3. Electric motors and their switching devices

Chapter 5.4. Crane electrical equipment

Chapter 5.5. Electrical equipment of elevators

Chapter 5.6. Condenser units

Section 6. Electric lighting

Chapter 6.1. a common part

Chapter 6.2. Interior lighting

Chapter 6.3. Outdoor Lighting

Chapter 6.4. Illuminated advertising, signs and illumination

Chapter 6.5. Lighting control

Chapter 6.6. Lighting fixtures and wiring devices

Section 7. Electrical equipment of special installations

Chapter 7.1. Electrical installations of residential, public, administrative and household buildings

Chapter 7.2. Electrical installations of entertainment companies, clubs and sports facilities

Chapter 7.3. Electrical installations in hazardous areas

Chapter 7.4. Electrical installations in fire hazardous areas

Chapter 7.5. Electrothermal plants

Chapter 7.6. Electric welding installations

Chapter 7.7. Peat electrical installations

Chapter 7.10. Electrolysis plants and electroplating plants

Applications

All articles for an electrician

Regulatory documentation for an electrician

 


 

Latest news of science and technology, new electronics:

The speech of sperm whales is similar to that of humans 18.05.2024

In the world of the ocean, where the mysterious and unknown coexists with the studied, sperm whales, with their huge brains, are of particular interest to science. Researchers, working with a huge array of audio recordings collected during the Dominica Sperm Whale Project (DSWP) - more than 8000 recordings, seek to unravel the secrets of their communication and understand the structure and complexity of the language of these mysterious creatures. By studying in detail the recordings of 60 sperm whales in the eastern Caribbean, scientists have revealed surprising features of their communication, revealing the complexity of their language. "Our observations indicate that these whales have a highly developed combinatorial communication system, including rubato and ornaments, which indicates their ability to quickly adapt and vary during communication. Despite significant differences in evolution, sperm whales have elements in their communication that are characteristic of human communication," says Shane Gero, a biologist at Carleton University and director of the CETI project. Issl ... >>

Electron spin for quantum information transfer 18.05.2024

The transfer of quantum information remains one of the key tasks of modern science. Recent advances in the use of electron spin to expand the capabilities of information transfer in quantum systems have become very important. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are pushing the frontiers of quantum information science by experimenting with the possibilities of electron spin. Electron spin, a natural quantum bit, is a potentially powerful means for storing and transmitting information in quantum systems. Magnon wave packets, collective excitations of electron spin, have revealed their potential to transmit quantum information over significant distances. The work of Berkeley Lab researchers has revolutionized the way such excitations propagate in antiferromagnets, opening up new prospects for quantum technologies. Using pairs of laser pulses, scientists disrupted antiferromagnetic order in one place and simultaneously studied it in another, creating ... >>

Sound-absorbing silk 17.05.2024

In a world where noise is becoming increasingly intrusive, the emergence of innovative materials that can reduce its impact is of great interest. MIT researchers have unveiled a new sound-absorbing silk fabric that promises to revolutionize quiet spaces. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made significant breakthroughs in the field of sound absorption. Researchers have developed a special silk fabric that can effectively absorb sound and create cozy, quiet environments. The fabric, thinner than a human hair, contains a unique vibrating fiber that is activated when voltage is applied to it. This feature allows the fabric to be used to suppress sound waves in two different ways. The first method uses fabric vibrations to generate sound waves that cover and cancel out unwanted noise, similar to noise-canceling headphones. This p ... >>

Random news from the Archive

Compact portable solar-powered refrigerator 22.05.2021

The new GoSun Chillest is a self-contained, portable refrigerator with a capacity of 45 liters.

This is no ordinary cooler bag where you have to put ice or special cool packs. GoSun Chillest can independently maintain the desired temperature below zero with the help of a compressor and thermostat. Power consumption does not exceed 45 watts.

As a power source, you can use the device's battery, external power supply, direct current and solar energy. GoSun Chillest is equipped with a solar battery, which, if necessary, can be used as a table.

The total operating time of the refrigerator is about 40 hours with an external power supply. The total volume is 45 liters, the storage temperature is up to -20 degrees. The only negative is the weight of 19 kg.

GoSun Chillest is $699.

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