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Dangerous factors of fire and explosion. Occupational Safety and Health

Occupational Safety and Health

Occupational Safety and Health / Legislative basis for labor protection

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К fire hazardsaffecting people and material values ​​include:

  • flames and sparks;
  • heat flow;
  • increased ambient temperature;
  • increased concentration of toxic products of combustion and thermal decomposition;
  • reduced oxygen concentration;
  • increased concentration of smoke along escape routes.

К secondary consequences of exposure to fire hazards building structures, technological equipment and fire extinguishing actions that are harmful to human life and health, material values ​​include:

  • fragments, parts of collapsed devices, units, installations, structures;
  • radioactive and toxic substances and materials released from destroyed devices and installations;
  • removal of high voltage to conductive parts of structures, devices, units;
  • dangerous factors of an explosion that occurred as a result of a fire;
  • the impact of fire extinguishing agents and the actions of fire departments to extinguish fires.

One of the fire hazards is reduced oxygen content, since the combustion process occurs with the intensive absorption of oxygen. Therefore, in a fire, oxygen starvation can occur. When the oxygen content in the air is 16-18%, there is a rapid heartbeat, a slight disorder in coordination of movements; slightly reduced ability to think. At 9% of the oxygen content in the breathing zone, loss of consciousness occurs, at 6% - death in minutes. It is important to know that a person does not feel oxygen starvation and cannot take measures to save himself. The maximum oxygen content in fire conditions is 17%.

A very dangerous fire factor is carbon monoxide CO toxic to humans (carbon monoxide, or carbon monoxide). Under normal conditions, CO is a flammable, colorless and odorless gas. Under the influence of CO, the blood loses its ability to absorb oxygen. MPC content CO - 0,1%. This causes headache, nausea, general malaise. Inhalation of air with 0,5% carbon monoxide for 20-30 minutes leads to death. When inhaling air containing 1% CO, death occurs in 1-2 minutes.

Another dangerous gas for humans, resulting from the complete thermal decomposition of combustible materials, is carbon dioxide CO2 (carbon dioxide) It has neither color nor smell, but has a sour taste. Inhalation of air containing up to 6-8% CO2leads to rapid and deeper breathing, causes tinnitus, headache, palpitations. A person loses consciousness when inhaling a mixture of 21% oxygen and 10% CO2. Maximum permissible value of CO2 - 6%.

CO poisoning2 can occur even when extinguishing a fire with carbon dioxide fire extinguishers (especially for small rooms), as well as when entering a room after CO is supplied there2 automatic installation of carbon dioxide fire extinguishing.

Increased temperature air and objects poses a real threat to human life and health in a fire.

Smoke is an extremely dangerous fire factor, since a person loses orientation in the smoke, while the time spent in extreme conditions increases, including conditions of increasing content of carbon monoxide and dioxide, rising air temperature and thermal radiation. Smoke is measured by the attenuation of light per unit length. The permissible value of the indicator is 2,4.

Fire and explosion hazards are collapsing structures, equipment, communications, buildings, structures and their flying parts.

The most dangerous explosion factor - the pressure of the blast wave, destroying structures and killing people.

Authors: Fainburg G.Z., Ovsyankin A.D., Potemkin V.I.

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