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Ballasts for fluorescent lamps. Schemes, articles, descriptions

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Ballasts for fluorescent lamps

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Sound audio complex

Section Audio. I will start my story from afar and with some explanations. I started designing radio equipment in the mid-60s of the last century. In the early 70s, a comfortable, for those times, Berezina restaurant was built in the city of Borisov. A professional vocal and instrumental ensemble worked in this restaurant. So this ensemble worked on radio equipment, which I completely made. At that time, it was difficult to acquire high-quality radio equipment: amplifiers, speakers, etc. The tube sound amplifying equipment I made at that time worked almost 24 hours a day and, most importantly, it worked flawlessly ... >>

Power supply + charger for 3-volt devices

Section Chargers, batteries, galvanic cells. The proposed power supply is designed to power 3-volt players, receivers, etc. It allows you to simultaneously charge their batteries (AB). The power supply is built according to a scheme similar to [1]. It provides up to 200mA output current as well as output short circuit protection. When a short circuit occurs at the output of the power supply, the short circuit current does not exceed 50 mA, while the VD13 LED goes out. The charger provides battery charging with a current adjustable from 70 to 220 mA in 10 mA steps. The required charging current is selected by the respective switches SA2...SA5. Diode VD11 is included in the circuit to increase the stability of the output current. When the battery is turned on for charging, the VD10 LED lights up. ... >>

Methods for connecting wires made of high resistance alloys

Section Ham Radio Technologies. To connect wires made of high resistance alloys (nichrome, constantan, nickelin, manganin, etc.), there are several simple welding methods without the use of special tools. Method 1. The ends of the wires to be welded are stripped, twisted and a current of such strength is passed through them so that the junction becomes red-hot. A piece of lapis (silver nitrate) is placed on this place with tweezers, which melts and welds the ends of the wires. ... >>

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Articles on ballasts for fluorescent lamps

Articles on ballasts for fluorescent lamps; descriptions of ballasts for fluorescent lamps: 42 articles



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Latest news of science and technology, new electronics:

The speech of sperm whales is similar to that of humans 18.05.2024

In the world of the ocean, where the mysterious and unknown coexists with the studied, sperm whales, with their huge brains, are of particular interest to science. Researchers, working with a huge array of audio recordings collected during the Dominica Sperm Whale Project (DSWP) - more than 8000 recordings, seek to unravel the secrets of their communication and understand the structure and complexity of the language of these mysterious creatures. By studying in detail the recordings of 60 sperm whales in the eastern Caribbean, scientists have revealed surprising features of their communication, revealing the complexity of their language. "Our observations indicate that these whales have a highly developed combinatorial communication system, including rubato and ornaments, which indicates their ability to quickly adapt and vary during communication. Despite significant differences in evolution, sperm whales have elements in their communication that are characteristic of human communication," says Shane Gero, a biologist at Carleton University and director of the CETI project. Issl ... >>

Electron spin for quantum information transfer 18.05.2024

The transfer of quantum information remains one of the key tasks of modern science. Recent advances in the use of electron spin to expand the capabilities of information transfer in quantum systems have become very important. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are pushing the frontiers of quantum information science by experimenting with the possibilities of electron spin. Electron spin, a natural quantum bit, is a potentially powerful means for storing and transmitting information in quantum systems. Magnon wave packets, collective excitations of electron spin, have revealed their potential to transmit quantum information over significant distances. The work of Berkeley Lab researchers has revolutionized the way such excitations propagate in antiferromagnets, opening up new prospects for quantum technologies. Using pairs of laser pulses, scientists disrupted antiferromagnetic order in one place and simultaneously studied it in another, creating ... >>

Sound-absorbing silk 17.05.2024

In a world where noise is becoming increasingly intrusive, the emergence of innovative materials that can reduce its impact is of great interest. MIT researchers have unveiled a new sound-absorbing silk fabric that promises to revolutionize quiet spaces. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made significant breakthroughs in the field of sound absorption. Researchers have developed a special silk fabric that can effectively absorb sound and create cozy, quiet environments. The fabric, thinner than a human hair, contains a unique vibrating fiber that is activated when voltage is applied to it. This feature allows the fabric to be used to suppress sound waves in two different ways. The first method uses fabric vibrations to generate sound waves that cover and cancel out unwanted noise, similar to noise-canceling headphones. This p ... >>

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Diesel fuel from sugar 22.11.2012

Scientists at the University of California have resurrected an abandoned technology for converting starch into explosives and using it to create a process that makes it possible to produce diesel fuel.

The technique for producing diesel fuel from bacterial fermentation products was developed by the chemist Chaim Weizmann almost 100 years ago. It allows the production of a combination of products that contains more energy per liter than ethanol, which is now widely used in transport and can become commercially viable within 5-10 years.

The Weizmann process is based on the activity of the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, which promotes the conversion of sugars into acetone, butanol and ethanol. American scientists improved the technology using a new catalyst and increased the yield of acetone and butanol. As a result, the fermentation of the mixture produces less ethanol, but more long-chain hydrocarbons, which are similar to the combination of hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. This technology is good in that it uses a widely available renewable raw material, sugar or starch, to produce fuel, and allows you to directly produce fuel or chemical components necessary for the manufacture of, for example, plastics.

Tests have shown that the fuel obtained by the new method burns almost the same as petroleum diesel fuel, which means that it can be mixed with traditional fuel. The new process is quite versatile and allows the use of a wide range of renewable raw materials: from corn sugar (glucose) and cane sugar (sucrose) to starch, as well as non-food raw materials (grass, branches, straw, etc.). The process can be customized to produce a variety of hydrocarbons, including light hydrocarbons like gasoline or jet fuel.

Initially, Weizmann developed his own technology for the production of gunpowder. However, oil soon became more accessible and cheaper, and Weizmann's technology did not catch on because it was too inefficient. Today, American scientists have been able to create a catalyst based on palladium and potassium phosphate. The catalyst effectively binds ethanol and butanol and converts them into aldehydes. The aldehydes then react with acetone to produce long chain hydrocarbons.

So far, this technology produces fuel that is more expensive than oil. However, it can find its niche, for example, to reduce oil dependence. In addition, scientists are working to replace expensive palladium catalysts with cheaper and more efficient ones, which will make diesel fuel from sugar more competitive.

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