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Rules for the technical operation of consumer electrical installations (PTE)

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Rules for the technical operation of consumer electrical installations (PTE)

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Rules for the technical operation of consumer electrical installations (PTE)

All articles of the Rules for the technical operation of consumer electrical installations (PTE): 115 articles

Section 1. Organization and operation of electrical installations

Section 2. Electrical equipment and electrical installations for general purposes

Section 3. Electrical installations for special purposes

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Annex 3. Standards for testing electrical equipment and apparatus for electrical installations of consumers

Appendix 4

Appendix 5. Characteristics of explosion-proof connections of explosion-proof equipment

Rules for the protection of electrical networks

All articles for an electrician

Regulatory documentation for an electrician



Latest news of science and technology, new electronics:

The speech of sperm whales is similar to that of humans 18.05.2024

In the world of the ocean, where the mysterious and unknown coexists with the studied, sperm whales, with their huge brains, are of particular interest to science. Researchers, working with a huge array of audio recordings collected during the Dominica Sperm Whale Project (DSWP) - more than 8000 recordings, seek to unravel the secrets of their communication and understand the structure and complexity of the language of these mysterious creatures. By studying in detail the recordings of 60 sperm whales in the eastern Caribbean, scientists have revealed surprising features of their communication, revealing the complexity of their language. "Our observations indicate that these whales have a highly developed combinatorial communication system, including rubato and ornaments, which indicates their ability to quickly adapt and vary during communication. Despite significant differences in evolution, sperm whales have elements in their communication that are characteristic of human communication," says Shane Gero, a biologist at Carleton University and director of the CETI project. Issl ... >>

Electron spin for quantum information transfer 18.05.2024

The transfer of quantum information remains one of the key tasks of modern science. Recent advances in the use of electron spin to expand the capabilities of information transfer in quantum systems have become very important. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are pushing the frontiers of quantum information science by experimenting with the possibilities of electron spin. Electron spin, a natural quantum bit, is a potentially powerful means for storing and transmitting information in quantum systems. Magnon wave packets, collective excitations of electron spin, have revealed their potential to transmit quantum information over significant distances. The work of Berkeley Lab researchers has revolutionized the way such excitations propagate in antiferromagnets, opening up new prospects for quantum technologies. Using pairs of laser pulses, scientists disrupted antiferromagnetic order in one place and simultaneously studied it in another, creating ... >>

Sound-absorbing silk 17.05.2024

In a world where noise is becoming increasingly intrusive, the emergence of innovative materials that can reduce its impact is of great interest. MIT researchers have unveiled a new sound-absorbing silk fabric that promises to revolutionize quiet spaces. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made significant breakthroughs in the field of sound absorption. Researchers have developed a special silk fabric that can effectively absorb sound and create cozy, quiet environments. The fabric, thinner than a human hair, contains a unique vibrating fiber that is activated when voltage is applied to it. This feature allows the fabric to be used to suppress sound waves in two different ways. The first method uses fabric vibrations to generate sound waves that cover and cancel out unwanted noise, similar to noise-canceling headphones. This p ... >>

Random news from the Archive

Windmills above the Eiffel Tower 04.02.2021

In the largest onshore wind park in Europe, Markbygden, which is being built in Sweden, they are going to install giant wind turbines 300 meters high. Their size will be comparable to the height of the Eiffel Tower. Bloomberg writes about it.

By the end of the first quarter of 2021, the company Svevind, which operates the wind farm, is going to submit a request for the placement of record-breaking wind turbines. Obtaining a permit can take two to three years. In addition, at the moment, windmills of this size have not yet been invented. The largest rig currently on the market is the 5.8-170 from Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy SA.

The higher the windmills, the more energy they will produce. By the end of the decade, 1101 installations will be operating in the park - together they will provide about eight percent of Sweden's electricity needs.

By 2035, the demand for electricity in Sweden will grow by 70 percent, so now the kingdom needs to think about how to generate more electricity in a sustainable way. Otherwise, the country will not be able to achieve the climate goals that it sets for itself. In 2020, the output of Swedish wind farms increased by 40 percent.

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