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FUNDAMENTALS OF FIRST AID
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Help with burns

Fundamentals of First Aid (OPMP)

Directory / Fundamentals of First Aid

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Burns - tissue damage caused by high temperature, electric current, acids, alkalis or ionizing radiation. Accordingly, thermal, electrical, chemical and radiation burns are distinguished. Thermal burns are the most common, accounting for 90-95% of all burns.

The severity of burns is determined by the area and depth of tissue damage. Depending on the depth of the lesion, four degrees of burns are distinguished. Superficial burns, under favorable conditions, heal on their own. Deep burns affect, in addition to the skin, deep-lying tissues, so skin grafting is required for such burns. Most affected usually have a combination of burns of varying degrees.

Inhalation of flames, hot air and steam can cause burns to the upper respiratory tract and swelling of the larynx with the development of respiratory disorders. The general condition of the victim also depends on the extent of the burn surface, if the burn area exceeds 10 ... 15% (in children more than 10%) of the body surface, the victim develops the so-called burn disease, the first period of which is burn shock.

First aid is to stop the effect of the damaging factor. In case of a flame burn, extinguish burning clothing, remove the victim from the fire zone, in case of burns with hot liquids or molten metol, quickly remove clothing from the burn area. The parts of clothing that have stuck to the body are not torn off, but cut off around and left in place. You can not cut and tear the formed bubbles, touch the burn with your hands. In case of burns of individual parts of the body, the skin around the burn is wiped with alcohol, cologne, water, and a dry sterile bandage is applied to the burnt surface.

To stop the effect of the temperature factor, it is necessary to quickly cool the affected area of ​​​​the body by immersion in cold water, under a stream of cold water or irrigation with chloroethyl.

Chemical burns of the skin occur as a result of contact with the skin of acids (acetic, hydrochloric, sulfuric, etc.), alkalis (caustic sodium, ammonia, quicklime). The depth of the burn depends on the concentration of the chemical agent, temperature and duration of exposure. If first aid is not provided in a timely manner, chemical burns can significantly deepen in 20 ... 30 minutes. Clothing soaked in acid or alkali also contributes to the deepening and spread of burns.

When concentrated acids come into contact with the skin, a dry dark brown or black scab with clearly defined edges quickly appears on the skin and mucous membranes, and when concentrated alkalis come into contact with a wet grayish-dirty scab without a clear outline. In this case, it is necessary to quickly remove the pieces of clothing impregnated with a chemical agent. It is necessary to reduce the concentration of chemicals on the skin. To do this, the skin is abundantly washed with running water for 20-30 minutes. For acid burns, after washing with water, you can use alkaline solutions (2 ... 3% solution of baking soda - sodium bicarbonate, soapy water) or apply a sterile napkin moistened with a weak alkaline solution.

It is not recommended to use water for burns with sulfuric acid, because. in this case, heat is generated, which can aggravate the burn. In case of burns with alkali, also after washing with water, weak solutions of acids (1 ... 2% solution of acetic or citric acid) can be used to treat the burn surface. It is advisable to give painkillers and be sure to send the victim to the burn unit.

If clothes are impregnated with a chemically active substance, one should strive to quickly remove it; any manipulations on burn wounds are absolutely contraindicated. For the purpose of anesthesia, the victim is given analgin (pentalgin, tempalgin, sedalgin). For major poisoning. the victim takes 2 ... 3 tablets of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and 1 tablet of diphenhydramine. Before the doctor arrives, they are allowed to drink hot tea and coffee, alkaline mineral water (500 ... 2000 ml) or the following solutions: solution - sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) 1/2 teaspoon, sodium chloride (table salt) 1 teaspoon per 1 liter of water ; solution - tea, for 1 liter of which add 1 teaspoon of table salt 2/3 teaspoon of bicarbonate or sodium nitrate.

Authors: Afanasiev Yu.G., Ovcharenko A.G., Trutneva L.I.

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