Menu English Ukrainian russian Home

Free technical library for hobbyists and professionals Free technical library

Free library / Directory / Factory technology at home - simple recipes

General instructions for coloring sheepskins and furs. Simple recipes and tips

Factory technologies - simple recipes

Directory / Factory technology at home - simple recipes

Comments on the article Comments on the article

When coloring sheepskins and furs in light colors, it is necessary to pre-bleach the hair. The best, very simple and cheap method, which gives good results, is sulfur bleaching, or the so-called "fumigation". This "fumigation" of the skins is best done when wet.

The skins are hung on poles, placed on boards or stretched over frames. You need to place them so that they do not touch each other. The room where fumigation is carried out must be tightly closed. Sulfur in pieces or in powder is placed in cups or pans, doused with alcohol and set on fire. The skins remain indoors for 12 hours, after which the sulfur dioxide is released outside. You must be very careful when working with sulfur dioxide, as it is poisonous and can easily poison workers. If bleaching was insufficient, this operation is repeated again.

Another way of bleaching is that the skin is treated with a solution of bisulfite, and then placed in a weak solution of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. Instead of two baths, you can prepare one acidified bisulfite bath.

acidified bisulfite bath is compiled as follows:

  • Bisulfite solution 3 kg;
  • Water 100 l;
  • Hydrochloric acid 750 g.

Hydrochloric acid is pre-diluted in 1 liter of water.

A commercial solution of bisulfite contains 15-18% sulfurous acid associated with sodium. By adding sulfuric or hydrochloric acid to the solution, we release sulfurous acid from bisulfite.

The skins are immersed in a bath and left there until bleaching. Hydrochloric acid can be added to the bath if it is not enough. The bleaching time is established by practice. When the skins turn noticeably white, they should be removed and thoroughly washed in warm water at 35-40 °C. In practice, this bleaching is unnecessary when the fur is dyed dark colors; When painting in light colors, bleaching is necessary.

After cleaning the skins, degreasing is carried out to remove traces of fat remaining in the skin after washing. For this purpose, apply a mixture of chalk and water to the inner side. Chalk is mixed with water to obtain a thick paste and applied to the flesh with a brush. On the collar and rump a thicker layer is applied. After this, the skins are blown into a room with a high temperature of up to 40 ° C for drying. If necessary, the operation is repeated again. Once all the fat has been extracted, the hides are ready for chlorination.

Chlorination aims to make hair more susceptible to dyeing. The chlorination process involves exposing the hair for a short time to a solution of bleaching lime with a strength of 0,3 °Be. The skins are processed in this way for half an hour to 2 hours, and it is necessary to ensure that the wool fiber is not damaged. The strength of the solution should not be higher than 0,3 °Be, otherwise the wool can be damaged and the skin will deteriorate.

After chlorination, the skin goes sour. For this purpose, the washed skins are immersed in dilute sulfuric acid. The concentration of the solution should not exceed 250-500 g of strong sulfuric acid per 100 liters of water. The skins remain in this solution for several minutes, then they are thoroughly washed and dyed.

Bleached and chlorinated hides are thoroughly washed, pulled through a weak sulfuric acid solution and rinsed to remove traces of sulfuric acid. Dyeing sheepskin in light colors is made difficult by the fact that aniline dyes do not adhere firmly to the wool of the skins at medium temperatures. Dyeing is carried out for the most part at a dye bath temperature of no higher than 45 °C.

Of the most commonly used dyes for this purpose, the following can be named: safranin, bismarck brown, chrysodia, methylene green, methylene blue, malachite green, methyl violet, etc. The disadvantages of the main dyes include the ability to dye the ends of the hair more intensively than the roots. In addition, the coloring is not sufficiently resistant to mechanical friction.

For uniform coloring of the hair, a small amount of acetic acid and Glauber's salt should be added to the dye bath. Color fastness can be improved by thorough rinsing and a light bath of tannins (sumac, catechu, chestnut, and quebracho).

brown tone

A good brown color, which is in great demand in the market, is obtained as follows:

Take for each pair of skins about 50% of one of the above tannins; it is immersed in the solution for 0,5-1 hour of the skin, allowed to flow and treated with a solution of oxalic kalititan salt, taken in an amount of 25 g per pair of skins. 12-15 g of acetic acid and about 100 g of Glauber's salt are added to the solution.

Yellowish brown tone

  • Methylene, blue or green 1 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 2-3 wt. h.

leaf green tone

  • Methylene green 4 wt. hours;
  • Chrysoidin 1 wt. h.

golden tone

  • Auramine 10 wt. hours;
  • Bismarck brown 1 wt. h.

brown tone

  • Auramine 12 wt. h.
  • Bismarck brown 12 wt. hours;
  • Methylene blue 1 wt. h.

Dark blue tone

First stain black as above, then top with methylene blue.

carmine tone

  • Safranin 4 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 1 wt. h.

Dark green tone

  • Chrysoidin 1 wt. hours;
  • Methylene green 1 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 3 wt. h.

Brilliant green tone

  • Methylene green 1 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 15 wt. h.

The skins are left in the solution until the coloring of the desired depth is obtained. This is followed by thorough rinsing, dewatering, refinishing, drying and finishing.

Author: Korolev V.A.

We recommend interesting articles Section Factory technology at home - simple recipes:

▪ Grease for broaching on presses

▪ Ivory whitening

▪ Liquid compositions for cleaning canvas and canvas shoes

See other articles Section Factory technology at home - simple recipes.

Read and write useful comments on this article.

<< Back

Latest news of science and technology, new electronics:

The speech of sperm whales is similar to that of humans 18.05.2024

In the world of the ocean, where the mysterious and unknown coexists with the studied, sperm whales, with their huge brains, are of particular interest to science. Researchers, working with a huge array of audio recordings collected during the Dominica Sperm Whale Project (DSWP) - more than 8000 recordings, seek to unravel the secrets of their communication and understand the structure and complexity of the language of these mysterious creatures. By studying in detail the recordings of 60 sperm whales in the eastern Caribbean, scientists have revealed surprising features of their communication, revealing the complexity of their language. "Our observations indicate that these whales have a highly developed combinatorial communication system, including rubato and ornaments, which indicates their ability to quickly adapt and vary during communication. Despite significant differences in evolution, sperm whales have elements in their communication that are characteristic of human communication," says Shane Gero, a biologist at Carleton University and director of the CETI project. Issl ... >>

Electron spin for quantum information transfer 18.05.2024

The transfer of quantum information remains one of the key tasks of modern science. Recent advances in the use of electron spin to expand the capabilities of information transfer in quantum systems have become very important. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are pushing the frontiers of quantum information science by experimenting with the possibilities of electron spin. Electron spin, a natural quantum bit, is a potentially powerful means for storing and transmitting information in quantum systems. Magnon wave packets, collective excitations of electron spin, have revealed their potential to transmit quantum information over significant distances. The work of Berkeley Lab researchers has revolutionized the way such excitations propagate in antiferromagnets, opening up new prospects for quantum technologies. Using pairs of laser pulses, scientists disrupted antiferromagnetic order in one place and simultaneously studied it in another, creating ... >>

Sound-absorbing silk 17.05.2024

In a world where noise is becoming increasingly intrusive, the emergence of innovative materials that can reduce its impact is of great interest. MIT researchers have unveiled a new sound-absorbing silk fabric that promises to revolutionize quiet spaces. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made significant breakthroughs in the field of sound absorption. Researchers have developed a special silk fabric that can effectively absorb sound and create cozy, quiet environments. The fabric, thinner than a human hair, contains a unique vibrating fiber that is activated when voltage is applied to it. This feature allows the fabric to be used to suppress sound waves in two different ways. The first method uses fabric vibrations to generate sound waves that cover and cancel out unwanted noise, similar to noise-canceling headphones. This p ... >>

Random news from the Archive

Transistors that work 10 times faster than brain synapses 03.08.2022

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed programmable transistors that operate 10 times faster than brain synapses. The technology used for analog machine learning provides not only high data processing speed, but also good energy efficiency.

The working mechanism of the device is to electrochemically insert a tiny ion, a proton, into an insulating oxide to modulate its electronic conductivity. Scientists used a powerful electric field to accelerate protons and put ion transistors into nanosecond mode of operation.

The researchers note that the secret of new devices in the use of inorganic phosphorus silicate glass. It provides ultra-fast movement of protons, since it contains many nanometer-sized pores, the surfaces of which provide diffusion paths for elementary particles. It can withstand very strong pulsed electric fields.

The action potential in biological cells rises and falls on a time scale of milliseconds as a potential difference of approximately 0,1 volts is limited by the stability of water. In our work, we apply up to 10 volts through a special, nano-thick, hard glass film that produces protons without damaging it. And the stronger the field, the faster the ion devices work.

In the human brain, learning occurs by strengthening and weakening connections between synapses. Deep neural networks use a similar strategy when the weights of the nodes (neurons) are programmed with learning algorithms. When using processors, increasing and decreasing the electrical conductivity of proton resistors provides analog machine learning.

Conductivity is controlled by the movement of protons. To increase conductivity, more protons are pushed into the channel in the resistor, and to decrease conductivity, protons are expelled. This is achieved by using an electrolyte (similar to a battery) that produces protons but blocks electrons. Increasing the speed of protons significantly speeds up the process of machine learning.

Other interesting news:

▪ Lights in the night sea

▪ 6-channel light sensor VD6283TX

▪ Only the old man Hottabych can survive in a copper jug

▪ Photosynthesis battery

▪ Gadget 007 Edition Spy Gear

News feed of science and technology, new electronics


Interesting materials of the Free Technical Library:

▪ section of the site Microcontrollers. Article selection

▪ article Electric current and its influence on a person. Basics of safe life

▪ article Which conservatory bears the name of the composer who was denied admission? Detailed answer

▪ article Long-leaved mint. Legends, cultivation, methods of application

▪ article Simplified calculation of the current-voltage characteristic of the equivalent lambda diode. Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering

▪ article Field effect transistors. Color marking and analogues. Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering

Leave your comment on this article:


Email (optional):

A comment:

All languages ​​of this page

Home page | Library | Articles | Website map | Site Reviews