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FACTORY TECHNOLOGIES AT HOME - SIMPLE RECIPES
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General instructions for coloring sheepskins and furs. Simple recipes and tips

Factory technologies - simple recipes

Directory / Factory technology at home - simple recipes

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When coloring sheepskins and furs in light colors, it is necessary to pre-bleach the hair. The best, very simple and cheap method, which gives good results, is sulfur bleaching, or the so-called "fumigation". This "fumigation" of the skins is best done when wet.

The skins are hung on poles, placed on boards or stretched over frames. You need to place them so that they do not touch each other. The room where fumigation is carried out must be tightly closed. Sulfur in pieces or in powder is placed in cups or pans, doused with alcohol and set on fire. The skins remain indoors for 12 hours, after which the sulfur dioxide is released outside. You must be very careful when working with sulfur dioxide, as it is poisonous and can easily poison workers. If bleaching was insufficient, this operation is repeated again.

Another way of bleaching is that the skin is treated with a solution of bisulfite, and then placed in a weak solution of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. Instead of two baths, you can prepare one acidified bisulfite bath.

acidified bisulfite bath is compiled as follows:

  • Bisulfite solution 3 kg;
  • Water 100 l;
  • Hydrochloric acid 750 g.

Hydrochloric acid is pre-diluted in 1 liter of water.

A commercial solution of bisulfite contains 15-18% sulfurous acid associated with sodium. By adding sulfuric or hydrochloric acid to the solution, we release sulfurous acid from bisulfite.

The skins are immersed in a bath and left there until bleaching. Hydrochloric acid can be added to the bath if it is not enough. The bleaching time is established by practice. When the skins turn noticeably white, they should be removed and thoroughly washed in warm water at 35-40 °C. In practice, this bleaching is unnecessary when the fur is dyed dark colors; When painting in light colors, bleaching is necessary.

After cleaning the skins, degreasing is carried out to remove traces of fat remaining in the skin after washing. For this purpose, apply a mixture of chalk and water to the inner side. Chalk is mixed with water to obtain a thick paste and applied to the flesh with a brush. On the collar and rump a thicker layer is applied. After this, the skins are blown into a room with a high temperature of up to 40 ° C for drying. If necessary, the operation is repeated again. Once all the fat has been extracted, the hides are ready for chlorination.

Chlorination aims to make hair more susceptible to dyeing. The chlorination process involves exposing the hair for a short time to a solution of bleaching lime with a strength of 0,3 °Be. The skins are processed in this way for half an hour to 2 hours, and it is necessary to ensure that the wool fiber is not damaged. The strength of the solution should not be higher than 0,3 °Be, otherwise the wool can be damaged and the skin will deteriorate.

After chlorination, the skin goes sour. For this purpose, the washed skins are immersed in dilute sulfuric acid. The concentration of the solution should not exceed 250-500 g of strong sulfuric acid per 100 liters of water. The skins remain in this solution for several minutes, then they are thoroughly washed and dyed.

Bleached and chlorinated hides are thoroughly washed, pulled through a weak sulfuric acid solution and rinsed to remove traces of sulfuric acid. Dyeing sheepskin in light colors is made difficult by the fact that aniline dyes do not adhere firmly to the wool of the skins at medium temperatures. Dyeing is carried out for the most part at a dye bath temperature of no higher than 45 °C.

Of the most commonly used dyes for this purpose, the following can be named: safranin, bismarck brown, chrysodia, methylene green, methylene blue, malachite green, methyl violet, etc. The disadvantages of the main dyes include the ability to dye the ends of the hair more intensively than the roots. In addition, the coloring is not sufficiently resistant to mechanical friction.

For uniform coloring of the hair, a small amount of acetic acid and Glauber's salt should be added to the dye bath. Color fastness can be improved by thorough rinsing and a light bath of tannins (sumac, catechu, chestnut, and quebracho).

brown tone

A good brown color, which is in great demand in the market, is obtained as follows:

Take for each pair of skins about 50% of one of the above tannins; it is immersed in the solution for 0,5-1 hour of the skin, allowed to flow and treated with a solution of oxalic kalititan salt, taken in an amount of 25 g per pair of skins. 12-15 g of acetic acid and about 100 g of Glauber's salt are added to the solution.

Yellowish brown tone

  • Methylene, blue or green 1 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 2-3 wt. h.

leaf green tone

  • Methylene green 4 wt. hours;
  • Chrysoidin 1 wt. h.

golden tone

  • Auramine 10 wt. hours;
  • Bismarck brown 1 wt. h.

brown tone

  • Auramine 12 wt. h.
  • Bismarck brown 12 wt. hours;
  • Methylene blue 1 wt. h.

Dark blue tone

First stain black as above, then top with methylene blue.

carmine tone

  • Safranin 4 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 1 wt. h.

Dark green tone

  • Chrysoidin 1 wt. hours;
  • Methylene green 1 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 3 wt. h.

Brilliant green tone

  • Methylene green 1 wt. hours;
  • Auramine 15 wt. h.

The skins are left in the solution until the coloring of the desired depth is obtained. This is followed by thorough rinsing, dewatering, refinishing, drying and finishing.

Author: Korolev V.A.

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