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Extraction. Chemical experiments

Entertaining experiments in chemistry

Entertaining experiences at home / Chemistry experiments for children

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Now we will get acquainted with a very common process in industry, which is called extraction.

Grind a few nut kernels and a handful of sunflower seeds (of course, without the husk), put in a test tube and fill with gasoline. There should be no fire nearby - gasoline can catch fire! Shake the test tube and let it stand for two hours, remembering to shake it from time to time. Then drain the solution on a saucer and expose to a draft. When the gasoline evaporates, you will see some oil at the bottom. So with the help of gasoline you extracted, extracted, the oil from the seeds. This happened due to the fact that the oil dissolves well in gasoline.

You can try to make oil from other seeds. Just don't hesitate to taste it!

Another experiment is with leaves. For him, we need a water bath and a glass with thin walls (if they are thick, the glass, as you remember, may burst). Place a fresh leaf of some plant in a vessel and fill it with a small amount of diluted alcohol. Heat the water in the bath, remove it from the heat and put a glass with a leaf inside. After some time, remove the leaf with tweezers: it has discolored, and the alcohol has become emerald green. This is how you performed the extraction of chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants.

By the way, if you take a known edible plant - lettuce or spinach, then you can extract food coloring from it in this way - to tint cream or sauce. This is what food factories do: the green edible dye is extracted from the leaves. To speed up this process, we advise you to first grind the leaves and shake the vessel from time to time.

Another experience. In a test tube half filled with water, pour about 1 ml of iodine pharmacy tincture; a brownish solution will be obtained. Add an equal amount of gasoline to it, shake it several times and leave it alone. When the mixture separates, it turns out that the upper, gasoline layer has become dark brown, and the lower, aqueous layer, is almost colorless. Iodine dissolves poorly in water, but well in gasoline. Therefore, he switched from an aqueous solution to a gasoline one.

The difference in solubility is the basis of our latest extraction experience. How to quickly distinguish coffee powder from chicory powder? By smell, this is understandable, but if the smell is weak or you do not remember it exactly? Then throw a pinch of both powders into a transparent vessel with hot water. The colored substances of chicory are difficult to extract with water, so the eye will remain almost colorless. On the contrary, coffee substances dissolve easily in water, and its powder slowly sinks to the bottom, leaving behind a brown trail.

Author: Olgin O.M.

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