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How did the 18th century chess computer work? Detailed answer

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How did the 18th century chess computer work?

In 1770, the Hungarian Wolfgang von Kempelen designed a chess "computer" - an apparatus in the form of a chess table and a mechanical Turk that moved the pieces with his hands. The apparatus won most of the games, among the defeated were Napoleon and Benjamin Franklin. Many scientists puzzled over the principle of the "Turk", and only 50 years later they exposed the deception - a live operator of the machine was hiding under the table.

Authors: Jimmy Wales, Larry Sanger

 Random interesting fact from the Great Encyclopedia:

How long can a chicken live without a head?

About two years.

On September 10, 1945, a plump young cockerel from Fruita, Colorado lost his head and survived. The ax miraculously did not hit the jugular vein, and enough of the brain stem was left on the neck so that the chicken not only lived, but also flourished.

Known as "Mike," the cockerel became a national hero, traveled nearly the entire country, and was even featured in magazines such as Time and Life. Its owner, Lloyd Olsen, charged twenty-five cents to see "Mike the Headless Wonder Chicken" at fairground shows across America. Mike appeared on stage with a dried chicken head - allegedly his own. In fact, the Olsen cat has long since finished with the original. At the height of his fame, Mike was earning $4500 a month and was valued at $10. His massive success sparked a wave of imitators, although none of the decapitated victims lasted more than two days.

They fed and watered Mike with a pipette. In the two years that have passed since the chicken lost his head, he gained almost three kilos and all the time he did nothing but happily “clean his feathers” and “peck” food with the remains of his neck. One person who knew Mike well commented: "He was a big, fat chicken who didn't know he didn't have a head."

But one day the unthinkable happened. The tragedy occurred in a motel room in Phoenix, Arizona. Mike choked, and Lloyd Olsen, to his horror, realized that he had left his pipette at the evening performance. Unable to clear his airway on his own, Mike suffocated to death.

Mike remains a cult figure in Colorado to this day. Since May 1999, the town of Fruita has celebrated his passing with a special Mike the Headless Chicken Day.

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Contraceptive gel for men 09.07.2012

The application of an experimental contraceptive gel containing a combination of two sex hormones (testosterone and progestin) to the skin reduces the sperm count in the ejaculate of 89% of men to very low values.

In the male body, progestins (synthetic analogues of the female sex hormone progesterone) enhance the contraceptive effect of testosterone. In combination, these two hormones suppress the production of other hormones that regulate sperm formation. Earlier versions of male hormonal contraceptive methods based on this hormonal combination involved the use of progestin-containing pills, implants, or injections.

The new contraceptive drug, developed by researchers at the Los Angeles Institute for Biomedical Research, is a gel applied to the skin that contains the male sex hormone testosterone and a newly developed progestin called nonsider. In addition to the ease of use of the gel, its serious advantage lies in the fact that Nestoron does not have androgenic (inherent in male sex hormones) activity, which can have side effects, such as the appearance of acne or changes in the levels of good and bad cholesterol in the blood.

As part of a primary clinical study, researchers randomly divided 99 healthy men into 3 groups, each of which used one of 6 unidentified gels daily for 3 months. The tested preparations were a gel containing 10 mg of testosterone, or the same gel in combination with a gel containing 8 or 12 mg of nestosterone.

56 men adhered to the study protocol for at least 20 weeks. However, only 23% of participants who used testosterone gel, the concentration of sperm dropped to 1 million per milliliter - a level considered to reduce the likelihood of conception to almost zero. The use of the combined gel provided a similar result in 88-89% of men, depending on the dose of progestin. At the same time, the complete absence of spermatozoa was observed in 78% and 69% of participants who used gels containing 8 and 12 mg of progestin, respectively. For the control group, which used only testosterone gel, this figure was only 23%.

The absence of undesirable side reactions when using the experimental gel indicates the advisability of its further testing in clinical trials.

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