Menu English Ukrainian russian Home

Free technical library for hobbyists and professionals Free technical library


ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RADIO ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Free library / Schemes of radio-electronic and electrical devices

Handmade screwdriver. Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering

Free technical library

Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering / Ham Radio Technologies

Comments on the article Comments on the article

First of all, we will talk about miniature screwdrivers, the so-called sentries. With their help, you can not only repair chronometers, but also repair glasses, cameras, and generally apply where particularly fine mechanics are used. Of course, a ready-made set of such screwdrivers is on sale. But, firstly, it is not cheap, and secondly, for sure, not all screwdrivers from the set will be needed for a specific job. Yes, sometimes you need such a small screwdriver that it is not in the kit.

A miniature screwdriver is quite easy to make from a needle - an ordinary, "darning" one, from a sewing machine.

Carefully break off and discard the sharp tip of the needle. Then we anneal the steel: we heat the tip of the needle to a temperature of 900 ... 950 degrees, and then slowly cool it. To determine the temperature, you will have to focus on the color of the steel heat. So, a temperature of 780 ... 820 degrees corresponds to cherry red, 820 ... 900 degrees - light red, and 900 ... 1050 degrees - orange. If the color of the heat is dark yellow (1050 ... 1150 degrees), light yellow (1150 ... 1250 degrees) or bright white (1250 ... 1300 degrees), then this is a clear "overheat". It cannot be allowed for a long time, since carbon burns out and steel loses its useful properties.

You can anneal the needle, or rather, its very tip, in the flame of a burner of an ordinary household gas stove, and cool it very slowly by removing it from the flame. After that, the steel will no longer be so brittle, it will become ductile, so that you can easily unforge the tip of the needle, give it the shape of a spatula. Do this on a small anvil with a small hammer. A larger hammer, pliers or pliers can also serve as an anvil. To make it easier to forge, reheat the needle, no longer worrying about the speed of removal from the fire. After forging, the tip of the needle should acquire the shape shown in two projections in Fig. 1.

DIY screwdriver
Fig. 1

The needle is then processed with a flat file or polished on an abrasive bar (whetstone) or a piece of skin, attached to a wooden block with pushpins. The tip is given the shape shown in two projections in Fig. 2. If a needle file was used first, then the grinding operation is still required.

DIY screwdriver
Fig. 2

When the screwdriver is processed, the needle must be hardened again. To do this, the tip is heated to a temperature of 760 ... 780 degrees (which corresponds to a dark cherry-red color of heat) and quickly immersed strictly vertically in water at room temperature.

After such hardening, the screwdriver blade will be too fragile, it is easy to break it. To increase the toughness of steel, it is necessary to perform a third thermal operation - tempering. In industrial conditions, this is done with strict observance of the temperature regime. We will judge it again indirectly - by the so-called colors of the steel surface tint. Its tempering temperature from 285 to 315 degrees corresponds to tint colors from purple to light blue. It is on this scale that you need to focus. To make the colors more pronounced, remove the scale from the surface of the tool by grinding it after hardening to a shine. Finish the vacation by gradually cooling the tool in air.

Finally, the tip of the screwdriver became not only hard, but also viscous, so as not to break. It remains only to grind it on an abrasive stone.

And make a pen. You can simply stick the corner with an eye into an ordinary cork stopper from a bottle or into a piece of wood, a pencil.

But if you want to make a more reliable metal handle, you will have to turn it on a lathe from a brass bar. A hole equal to the diameter of the needle is drilled in the handle, the needle itself is tinned with POS grade solder. As a flux, "soldering acid" - zinc chloride is used. After tinning, the needle is inserted into the hole in the handle, helping the case with a soldering iron.

A mini screwdriver of our own production is ready. Exactly the same technology can be used to produce larger screwdrivers. Naturally, from more massive blanks. Say, from worn needle files. The "working" part of them (with a notch) is removed almost completely. They leave only a small area, from which they form a sting. To eliminate the hardness of the steel, which was unnecessary at first, the tip of the file is annealed. Further operations are no different from those described.

See other articles Section Ham Radio Technologies.

Read and write useful comments on this article.

<< Back

Latest news of science and technology, new electronics:

Blinking of the magician and his audience 19.05.2024

Magic and illusions have always captured the attention of the public, but what happens behind the scenes of the magician and in the brains of his audience? Scientists from the UK decided to solve this mystery by conducting a new study involving ten illusionists of varying experience. Illusionists, some of whom had been practicing magic for more than half a century, others for only six months, were invited to demonstrate the same trick - the popular coin trick. Recordings of their performances during training and on stage showed that each of them began to blink significantly more often at the moment of performing the trick. The study's findings indicate that magicians' blink rate may be related to unconscious aspects of their performance. At the same time, as scientists have found, spectators also begin to blink more often, following the movements of the illusionist. This observation supports the idea that magicians may be catalysts for blinking in audiences. Additional research has shown that magicians blink more often during ... >>

Ultrasonic coffee machine 19.05.2024

Iced coffee has become an integral part of coffee culture in recent years. Therefore, engineers from the University of New South Wales decided to improve its preparation. They have developed an ultrasonic coffee machine that reduces the cold brew time for ground coffee beans from 12-24 hours to significantly less time. Iced coffee, or "Cold brew", is popular due to its smoothness, low acidity and low bitterness. It is prepared by steeping ground coffee in cold water for a long time. Unlike traditional hot brewing, which often imparts bitterness to coffee, cold brewing extracts more delicate and complex flavors from the coffee beans. The innovative system, presented by a team of engineers, introduces ultrasonic technology into the coffee preparation process. The system uses ultrasonic waves to speed up the process of extracting oils, flavor and aroma from ground coffee. This allows you to significantly reduce the time ... >>

The speech of sperm whales is similar to that of humans 18.05.2024

In the world of the ocean, where the mysterious and unknown coexists with the studied, sperm whales, with their huge brains, are of particular interest to science. Researchers, working with a huge array of audio recordings collected during the Dominica Sperm Whale Project (DSWP) - more than 8000 recordings, seek to unravel the secrets of their communication and understand the structure and complexity of the language of these mysterious creatures. By studying in detail the recordings of 60 sperm whales in the eastern Caribbean, scientists have revealed surprising features of their communication, revealing the complexity of their language. "Our observations indicate that these whales have a highly developed combinatorial communication system, including rubato and ornaments, which indicates their ability to quickly adapt and vary during communication. Despite significant differences in evolution, sperm whales have elements in their communication that are characteristic of human communication," says Shane Gero, a biologist at Carleton University and director of the CETI project. Issl ... >>

Random news from the Archive

Reverse contraceptive 19.01.2016

One day, German carpenter Clemens Bimek saw a TV show about human anatomy that led him to the idea of ​​a radically new solution to the problem of male contraception. In 2000, he brought his development to patenting, and in 2009 he implanted (with the help of a surgeon, of course) this test device for himself.

The system, called Bimek SLV, uses two shutoff valves that are implanted in the musculoskeletal organ sac. Each valve is made from non-magnetic metal components and a biocompatible polymer used in medical implants. The valves attach to the paired vas deferens and cut into each canal. After implantation, the process of opening and closing the valve occurs by pressing a switch through the skin.

With the valve closed, the spermatozoa are diverted away from the duct and ejected into the surrounding tissue, where they should in theory be absorbed. In order to prevent accidental opening of the valve and, accordingly, an unexpected release of liquid, a safety device is provided in the device, which must be kept pressed to open the valve.

The operation on the inventor was performed under local anesthesia, and he could observe the process. All the past six years since implantation, the device has been working perfectly, and the spermiogram shows that his native ejaculate does not contain spermatozoa. When the rumor about the device spread among the masses, 200 men turned to the inventor, ready to participate in the experiments. Bimek is now working with doctors to prepare the device for clinical trials that are due to begin this year with 25 volunteers.

However, many urologists have raised concerns about the safety of the device. Some suggest a rejection reaction, despite the fact that the materials used in the device have long been used in implants. Others say that scar tissue can form at the junctions of the channels with the device, which will prevent the movement of the ejaculate. And the liquid itself can thicken and become inactive if the valves are kept closed for a long time.

Other interesting news:

▪ Biological magnetoreception

▪ Wireless Body Antenna

▪ ASUS ROG Strix LC II Liquid Cooling Systems

▪ New bipolar transistors MJL4281A (npn) and MJL4302

▪ Created nanoparticles that reduce brain swelling

News feed of science and technology, new electronics

 

Interesting materials of the Free Technical Library:

▪ section of the site Radio - for beginners. Article selection

▪ article by Charles Caleb Colton. Famous aphorisms

▪ article Where do nuts grow? Detailed answer

▪ article Oxalis vulgaris. Legends, cultivation, methods of application

▪ article Dual high-speed high-voltage optocoupler with TTL output. Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering

▪ article Demonstration ultrasonic installation. Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering

Leave your comment on this article:

Name:


Email (optional):


A comment:





All languages ​​of this page

Home page | Library | Articles | Website map | Site Reviews

www.diagram.com.ua

www.diagram.com.ua
2000-2024