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Handmade screwdriver. Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering

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Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering / Ham Radio Technologies

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First of all, we will talk about miniature screwdrivers, the so-called sentries. With their help, you can not only repair chronometers, but also repair glasses, cameras, and generally apply where particularly fine mechanics are used. Of course, a ready-made set of such screwdrivers is on sale. But, firstly, it is not cheap, and secondly, for sure, not all screwdrivers from the set will be needed for a specific job. Yes, sometimes you need such a small screwdriver that it is not in the kit.

A miniature screwdriver is quite easy to make from a needle - an ordinary, "darning" one, from a sewing machine.

Carefully break off and discard the sharp tip of the needle. Then we anneal the steel: we heat the tip of the needle to a temperature of 900 ... 950 degrees, and then slowly cool it. To determine the temperature, you will have to focus on the color of the steel heat. So, a temperature of 780 ... 820 degrees corresponds to cherry red, 820 ... 900 degrees - light red, and 900 ... 1050 degrees - orange. If the color of the heat is dark yellow (1050 ... 1150 degrees), light yellow (1150 ... 1250 degrees) or bright white (1250 ... 1300 degrees), then this is a clear "overheat". It cannot be allowed for a long time, since carbon burns out and steel loses its useful properties.

You can anneal the needle, or rather, its very tip, in the flame of a burner of an ordinary household gas stove, and cool it very slowly by removing it from the flame. After that, the steel will no longer be so brittle, it will become ductile, so that you can easily unforge the tip of the needle, give it the shape of a spatula. Do this on a small anvil with a small hammer. A larger hammer, pliers or pliers can also serve as an anvil. To make it easier to forge, reheat the needle, no longer worrying about the speed of removal from the fire. After forging, the tip of the needle should acquire the shape shown in two projections in Fig. 1.

DIY screwdriver
Fig. 1

The needle is then processed with a flat file or polished on an abrasive bar (whetstone) or a piece of skin, attached to a wooden block with pushpins. The tip is given the shape shown in two projections in Fig. 2. If a needle file was used first, then the grinding operation is still required.

DIY screwdriver
Fig. 2

When the screwdriver is processed, the needle must be hardened again. To do this, the tip is heated to a temperature of 760 ... 780 degrees (which corresponds to a dark cherry-red color of heat) and quickly immersed strictly vertically in water at room temperature.

After such hardening, the screwdriver blade will be too fragile, it is easy to break it. To increase the toughness of steel, it is necessary to perform a third thermal operation - tempering. In industrial conditions, this is done with strict observance of the temperature regime. We will judge it again indirectly - by the so-called colors of the steel surface tint. Its tempering temperature from 285 to 315 degrees corresponds to tint colors from purple to light blue. It is on this scale that you need to focus. To make the colors more pronounced, remove the scale from the surface of the tool by grinding it after hardening to a shine. Finish the vacation by gradually cooling the tool in air.

Finally, the tip of the screwdriver became not only hard, but also viscous, so as not to break. It remains only to grind it on an abrasive stone.

And make a pen. You can simply stick the corner with an eye into an ordinary cork stopper from a bottle or into a piece of wood, a pencil.

But if you want to make a more reliable metal handle, you will have to turn it on a lathe from a brass bar. A hole equal to the diameter of the needle is drilled in the handle, the needle itself is tinned with POS grade solder. As a flux, "soldering acid" - zinc chloride is used. After tinning, the needle is inserted into the hole in the handle, helping the case with a soldering iron.

A mini screwdriver of our own production is ready. Exactly the same technology can be used to produce larger screwdrivers. Naturally, from more massive blanks. Say, from worn needle files. The "working" part of them (with a notch) is removed almost completely. They leave only a small area, from which they form a sting. To eliminate the hardness of the steel, which was unnecessary at first, the tip of the file is annealed. Further operations are no different from those described.

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