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Satellite dish pointing indicator. Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering

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Encyclopedia of radio electronics and electrical engineering / Antennas. Measurements, setup and matching

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In order to monitor the signal received by the antenna of the satellite system at its installation site, the device described below is very useful. It will allow you to accurately orient the antenna to the satellite and get good reception quality.

Satellite dish pointing indicator

When installing equipment for receiving satellite television or the Internet, one of the problems is the exact orientation of the antenna to the satellite. It can be easily solved using the indicator, the appearance of which is shown in Fig. 1. It is equipped with a microammeter, the deviation of the arrow of which depends on the level of the received signal. The indicator is connected between the drop cable and the high-frequency irradiator-converter (the so-called LNB unit) of the satellite system.

Satellite dish pointing indicator
Rice. 2 (click to enlarge)

The scheme of the device is shown in fig. 2. It contains two identical RF amplifiers on DA1, DA2 chips, a detector on a VT1 transistor and a voltage regulator on a DA3 chip. Each of the amplifiers consumes a current of 8...10 mA, has a gain of 22...25 dB up to a frequency of 2 GHz and an upper cutoff frequency of 2,5 GHz in terms of -0,7dB. The overall gain in the frequency range of 2,2 ... 45 GHz reaches XNUMX dB.

To suppress signals with a frequency of less than 700 MHz, a C2L2C3 high-pass filter is installed at the input. The sensitivity of the indicator is regulated by a variable resistor R10. The variable resistor R4 sets the DC mode of the transistor VT1, which serves as an amplitude detector. Power is supplied to the indicator via a drop cable from the receiver through the low-pass filter L1C1 and the protective diode VD1.

After connecting the drop cable and the converter to the sockets XW1, XW2 and turning on the device with a variable resistor R4, the operation of the transistor VT1 is set in such a way that the PA1 microammeter shows a current close to zero. The output signal of the converter (including noise) passes through the high-pass filter, the first, then the second RF amplifiers and enters the base of the transistor VT1.

With an increase in the amplitude of the RF signal, the collector current through the transistor VT1 increases, and the voltage across it decreases. As a result, a current will flow through the RA1 microammeter. The higher the signal level, the more the arrow deviates. With its small or large deviation, the sensitivity of the device is increased or decreased by a variable resistor R10, respectively.

With a slow change in the spatial orientation of the antenna and approaching the exact direction to the satellite, the indicator arrow deviates more. According to the maximum of its deviation, the antenna is oriented exactly to the satellite. In this case, the signal is sent to the receiver and you can observe the results of the settings on the TV or monitor screen.

In the device, in addition to those indicated in the diagram, you can use other small-sized parts for surface mounting: the INA03170 microcircuit (DA1, DA2), any integrated voltage regulator in the SOT-89 package with a stabilization voltage of 8 ... 9 V (DA3), transistors - AT41411 , AT41435, AT41486 (VT1), fixed resistors RN1-12 of size 1206, variables of the SP4, SPO series, K10-17V capacitors or similar imported ones.

Coils L1, L2 are wound with wire PEV-2 0,2 on a mandrel with a diameter of 2 mm. Coil L1 contains 10 turns, winding - turn to turn, coil L2 - 3 turns with a step of 1 mm. Connectors - type F. Power switch - any small-sized. Microammeter - with total deflection current of 1OO...2OOmkA and resistance from several hundred ohms to several units of kiloohms.

Satellite dish pointing indicator
Fig. 3

Most of the parts are placed on a printed circuit board made of double-sided foil fiberglass, a sketch of which is shown in Fig. 3. The metallization of both sides is interconnected by a foil soldered along the edge of the board and through holes (by pieces of tinned wire). The board is soldered along the edges to the metal case cover, to which the connectors are also soldered, as seen in Fig. 4. Variable resistors, a microammeter and a switch are placed on the body (preferably also metal) of the device.

Satellite dish pointing indicator

The current consumed by the indicator is approximately 30 mA. To power the indicator, as well as the converter, you can use an autonomous source, for example, a battery of galvanic cells or batteries with a voltage of 12 V. In this case, additional sockets for connecting the battery should be installed on the indicator case, connecting them to the terminals of the capacitor C1.

To turn on the indicator between the drop cable and the converter, it is necessary to make a cable of the required length with two F-type plugs at the end.

The device does not require adjustment, you only need to check the voltage at the outputs of the DA1, DA2 microcircuits, which should be within 4 ... 4,5 V.

Author: I. Nechaev, Moscow; Publication: radioradar.net

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